Substantive intumescence from phosphorylated 1,3‐propanediol derivatives substituted on to cellulose

Zhang, Sheng and Horrocks, Richard ORCID: 0000-0003-1431-058X (2003) Substantive intumescence from phosphorylated 1,3‐propanediol derivatives substituted on to cellulose. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 90 (12). pp. 3165-3172. ISSN 0021-8995

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Official URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10974628

Abstract

Cellulose flame retarded with an ammonia-cured, polycondensed tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium-urea derivative (as Proban CC®,Rhodia) phosphorylated by cyclic 1,3-propanediol phosphoryl chloride or CPPC and cyclic 2,2-diethyl-1,3-propanediol phosphoryl chloride or CDPPC can give phosphorus levels up to 6.9%(w/w). Such high levels suggest up to 35.5% yields of reaction if the free secondary amine groups present in the cross-linked flame retardant and the C (6) primary hydroxyl groups are the assumed phosphorylation sites. The presence of substituted propanediol phosphonate moieties in the fibres significantly increases char formation above 400oC and scanning electron microscopy indicates that the char has an intumescent structure. The influence of chemical structure of the propanyl moeity to the reaction extent of the possible phosphorylation sites and the char formation mechanism during thermal pyrolysis of the modified samples are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fibers, Flame retardance, Pyrolysis, Cellulose, Phosphorylation, Proban®, Tetrakis(hydroxyl methyl) phosphonium condensate, Char, Intumescents
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: University of Bolton Research Centres > Institute for Materials Research and Innovation
Depositing User: Tracey Gill
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2019 15:01
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2019 15:01
Identification Number: 10.1002/app.12733
URI: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/id/eprint/2123

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