Smoke, CO2 and CO evolution from cotton and flame retarded cotton: Part 2. Behaviour of single layer fabrics in air at elevated temperatures

Horrocks, Richard ORCID: 0000-0003-1431-058X, Akalin, M. and Price, Dennis (1990) Smoke, CO2 and CO evolution from cotton and flame retarded cotton: Part 2. Behaviour of single layer fabrics in air at elevated temperatures. Journal of Fire Sciences, 8 (2). pp. 135-151. ISSN 0734-9041

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Official URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/loi/jfse?-1999

Abstract

Smoke, CO and CO2 emissions have been determined from un treated cotton and flame retarded cotton fabrics at elevated temperatures. The flame retardants studied at commercial levels of applications were ammonium polyphosphate (Amgard TR), ammonium polyphosphate—ammonium bromide (Amgard CD), a phosphonium salt-urea-polycondensate (Proban CC), a phos phono-propionamide (Pyrovatex CP) and an antimony (III) oxide-aliphatic bro mide (Flacavon H14/587) formulation. Combustion product analyses were undertaken at elevated temperatures (225-300°C) in air under burning conditions (above the respective temperature oxygen index) and non-flaming pyrolysis. Under both conditions smoke densi ties and CO concentrations increased with temperature. Carbon dioxide con centrations under non-flaming conditions showed similar increases but under burning conditions, decreased with increasing temperature. At a given temper ature, the P- and N-containing retardants reduced smoke density under burn ing conditions and increased it under pyrolysis relative to pure cotton below 350°C. These same flame retardants reduced CO and CO2 formation at each temperature from burning fabrics but produced little change with respect to cotton under non-flaming conditions. The presence of aliphatic bromine in the Sb2O3—bromine synergistic system caused significant increases in smoke density and CO and CO2 concentrations with respect to all other fabrics under pyrolysis in air. The observed trends are analysed in terms of current knowledge of pyrolysis and combustion mechanisms

Item Type: Article
Divisions: University of Bolton Research Centres > Institute for Materials Research and Innovation
Depositing User: Tracey Gill
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2018 14:56
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2018 14:56
Identification Number: 10.1177/073490419000800205
URI: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/id/eprint/1852

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