Three in one: β‐cyclodextrin, nanohydroxyapatite, and a nitrogen‐rich polymer integrated into a new flame retardant for poly (lactic acid)

Vahabi, Henri, Shabanian, M., Aryanasab, F., Laoutid, F., Benali, S., Seidi, F., Saeb, Mohammad Reza and Kandola, Baljinder K. ORCID: 0000-0002-3621-3724 (2018) Three in one: β‐cyclodextrin, nanohydroxyapatite, and a nitrogen‐rich polymer integrated into a new flame retardant for poly (lactic acid). Fire and Materials, 42 (6). pp. 593-602. ISSN 0308-0501

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Official URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10991018

Abstract

A new halogen‐free flame retardant was developed by integrating β‐cyclodextrin, triazin ring, and nanohydroxyapatite (BSDH) into a hybrid system. A β‐cyclodextrin was grafted to a commercially available SABO®STAB UV94 via an aromatic deanhydrate. The BSDH was prepared in situ in the presence of β‐cyclodextrin‐grafted nitrogen‐rich precursor. The resulting hybrid was applied as a flame retardant for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and compared for performance with ammonium polyphosphate (APP). PLA composites containing BSDH and APP, individually or simultaneously, were examined for thermal degradation and flammability by TGA, cone calorimeter, and pyrolysis‐combustion flow calorimetry. TGA results confirmed enhancement of thermal stability of PLA with assistance of BSDH compared to APP. The gases evolved during thermal degradation were assessed by a thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier infrared spectroscopy device. APP revealed catalytic effect to initiate PLA degradation, while BSDH continued to release some gases at elevated temperatures. The flame retardancy of PLA/APP/BSDH blend containing only 10 wt.% of additives was significantly improved. In cone calorimetric tests, a significant fall in peak of heat release rate was observed for this sample, 49% more than that of neat PLA, which was indicative of more gas and condensed phase reflected in more char residue. The corresponding PLA/APP sample, however, showed 17% improvement, as compared to neat PLA. Also, total heat release rate of PLA/APP/BSDH was 45 MJ.m−2, whereas those of PLA and PLA/APP were 89 and 65 MJ.m−2, respectively. BSDH and APP showed a synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy of PLA composites.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Paper published in Fire and Materials, © 1999-2018 John Wiley & Sons
Uncontrolled Keywords: flame retardancy, Hydroxapatite, Poly (lactic acid), thermal degradation, β-cyclodextrin
Divisions: Engineering, Sports and Sciences > Engineering
Depositing User: Tracey Gill
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2018 10:03
Last Modified: 07 Mar 2019 03:30
Identification Number: 10.1002/fam.2513
URI: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/id/eprint/1469

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