Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of nitrogen functionalized few layered graphene nanoflakes

Soin, Navneet ORCID: 0000-0002-0196-2071, Ray, Sekhar C., Sarma, Sweety, Mazumder, Debarati, Sharma, Surbhi, Wang, Yu-Fu, Pong, W.F., Roy, Susanta S. and Strydom, Andre M. Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of nitrogen functionalized few layered graphene nanoflakes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121 (26). pp. 14073-14082. ISSN 1932-7447

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Official URL: http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jpccck

Abstract

In this work, we report on the modification of electronic and magnetic properties of few layered graphene (FLG) nanoflakes via nitrogen functionalisation carried out using radio frequency (rf-PECVD) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma processes. Even though the rf-PECVD N2 treatment leads to higher N-doping levels in the FLGs (4.06 at%) as compared to the ECR process (2.18 at.%), the ferromagnetic behaviour of ECR FLG(118.62 x 10⁻⁴ emu/gm) was significantly higher than the rf-PECVD (0.39 x 10⁻⁴ emu/gm) and pristine graphene (3.47 x 10⁻⁴ emu/gm). While both plasma processes introduce electron donating N-atoms in the graphene structure, distinct dominant nitrogen bonding configurations (pyridinic, pyrrolic) were observed for each FLG type. While, the ECR plasma introduces more sp2 type nitrogen moieties, the rf-PECVD process led to the formation of sp3 coordinated nitrogen functionalities, as confirmed through Raman measurements. The samples further characterised using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and X-ray, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies revealed an increased electronic density of states and a significantly higher concentration of pyrrolic groups in the rf-PECVD samples. Due to the formation of reactive edge structures and pyridinic nitrogen moieties, the ECR functionalised FLGs expressed highest saturation magnetisation behaviour with the lowest field hysteretic features. In comparison, the rf-PECVD samples, displayed the lowest saturation magnetisation owing to the disappearance of magnetic edge states and formation of stable non-radical type defects in the pyrrole type structures. Our experimental results thus provide new evidence to control the magnetic and electronic properties of few layered graphene nanoflakes via control of the plasma-processing route.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Journal of Physical Chemistry C, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b01645
Divisions: School of Engineering > Engineering
Depositing User: Tracey Gill
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2017 18:32
Last Modified: 27 Mar 2018 13:28
Identification Number: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b01645
URI: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/id/eprint/1202

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